Construction of Wabash and Erie Canal was deadly

Construction of Wabash and Erie Canal was deadly

Bob Quirk Oct 1, 2016
From the Journal Review newspaper and website.
http://www.journalreview.com/news/life/article_ddccf59e-8792-11e6-a46a-6b9ce8acfba0.html

The Wabash and Eric Canal was started in 1832 in Fort Wayne. It reached Fountain County in 1846 and when completed in 1853 was the longest artificial waterway in the country.

Transportation in the days before the canal was quite inadequate. The population of the state was growing and better transportation was badly needed to ship out the surplus farm produce and to bring in the much needed supplies for the pioneer families.

The canal being close to the Wabash river and running through swamps and low lands, malaria became a problem and later cholera made its appearance. The work was done by Irish immigrants who had been forced out of Ireland by the potato famine. These laborers died by the hundreds, and the death rate was so high that the digging of graves was almost as big a job as digging the canal. The situation was to grow so terrible that for every six feet of completed channel it had cost the life of one human being.

The laborers who died from the cholera in Fountain County were buried in a cemetery at Maysville, a thriving village of this period between Attica and Riverside, also on a plot of land in Shawnee Township on the Bodine farm, 2 1/2 miles north of the village of Fountain. Others were buried in the corner of Portland Arch Cemetery.

Even from the beginning it was necessary to distribute large doses of quinine, calomel and “Blue Mass” to the workers, with the whiskey-bearing jigger boss making the rounds three times a day, and six times on Sunday.

The Canal’s troubles did not end with the plagues, for when they were not burying their dead they were fighting each other, since the Irish workers on the project were about equally divided between men from North and South Ireland, Cork and Ulster. This meant a general skull cracking on religious grounds whenever two of them met.

It was a hard life for the laborers and living conditions were very bad. The dirt was moved by pick and shovel and wheelbarrows. It was the hardest kind of work, done under very difficult conditions.

There were many jobs to be done beside digging the canal. A supply of water had to be provided which usually required damming one of the tributary streams entering the Wabash River and raising its level so that water could be led from above the dam to the main canal by means of feeder canals. Aqueducts had to be built across some of the creeks. These were huge wooden troughs the width and depth of the canal and supported on posts or stone piers and with a plank tow path built on the side for horses. In some cases, streams were crossed by damming them at the opposite bank of the canal and raising the level of the creek to that of the canal thereby providing a water supply as well as a crossing.

Thus with the coming of the canal, local farmers had a market for the surplus farm goods and manufactured goods from the east were made available to them.

Soon there were passenger boats for people to travel on. I will tell about them in my next article.
Bob Quirk is a retired educator and historian. He contributes this column to the Journal Review.

http://www.journalreview.com/news/life/article_ddccf59e-8792-11e6-a46a-6b9ce8acfba0.html

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Sagamore Parkway bridge demolition

Sagamore Parkway Eastbound Bridge demolition July 12, 2016.

Today, July 12th, 2016, one of the road bridges, over the Wabash River, was demolished, using explosives. This is the latest phase in the reconstruction project, of the bridge carrying the east bound carriageway of Sagamore Parkway, formerly US52, from West Lafayette to Lafayette, Indiana.

River Road, Old State Road 43, which is situated next the Wabash River, and passes under the bridge, has been closed from Monday July 11, 2016, for approximately one month.

Traffic from the east bound bridge has been diverted onto the other, west bound bridge, temporarily. The deck had previously been stripped off of the bridge framework, and the most easterly span was removed, before the framework was demolished, at approximately 9AM, on the 12th. Crews have been given 24 hours to remove the debris from the river.

The east bound bridge is situated south of the west bound bridge, and was constructed in 1936, and is therefore older than the west bound bridge. The two bridges are of completely different designs.

We’re Standing Tall

In 2006, the Vermillion County Community Foundation sponsored an art project involving 16 hand painted, 8 feet tall, fiberglass giraffes, on display at various locations in Vermillion County, Indiana.

To quote from an information booklet published at the time to publicize this event:-

Vermillion County, Indiana is home this summer to a unique art project – 16 eight foot tall giraffes decorate the landscape if Indiana’s longest county. Local sponsors and artists from this Western Indiana community have teamed up under the guidance of the Vermillion County Community Foundation to show their pride in being Indiana’s tallest county. The program is being so well received, the Lieutenant Governor’s Office of Tourism has even re-named State Highway 63 “Giraffe Parkway” in honor of the event.

The Foundation hopes visitors and residents alike will appreciate the giraffes which will be on display through October. Then, on November 5th they will each be auctioned off to the highest bidder to help the Foundation continue its work providing scholarships and grants to programs which showcase the county as a vibrant place to live.

The event is known as :- “Discover Surprises in Vermillion County – We’re Standing Tall”.

For further information and more pictures of these giraffes:- http://www.freewebs.com/colinsplace/giraffes/index.html

Marking a Piece of History in Veedersburg

Marking a Piece of History in Veedersburg, IN

Marking a Piece of History in Veedersburg, IN

Indiana Racing Memorial Association Board Members Dick Mittman, Howdy Bell, Mark Eutsler, Brian Hasler and Bob Gates pose in front of the group’s 10th historic marker in Veedersburg. In 1909, Indianapolis Motor Speedway President Carl Fisher ordered 3.5 million bricks — 3.2 million of which were installed on the racing surface — from the Wabash Clay Company in Veedersburg at a cost of 13 cents each. The building in which he signed the contract is still standing about a half mile south of the historic marker.  The company delivered the bricks in 63 days. IRMA Co-Founders Eutsler and Hasler are holding a panoramic photo of the company and its workers all of whom are identified. It was a gift to IRMA from the Town of Veedersburg. Following the unveiling a tour of the 22-acre site on which 26 kilns once stood was conducted by current owner Mark Carr.

Re Blogged from:-

http://www.journalreview.com/news/image_510ecd02-1632-11e6-b22f-db5e3ae6358c.html

Wabash and Erie Canal

Wabash and Erie Canal

Indiana was incorporated as a state in 1816, Fountain County, in 1825, and Attica was laid out and platted, also in 1825. The building of the Erie Canal in upstate New York proved so successful that the residents of Indiana saw the potential of such a canal here.

After much debate, on Feb. 23, 1832, formal ground breaking took place in Fort Wayne and in July 1832, actual construction took place and worked southwest; it reached Lafayette by 1842. The construction progressed slowly, reaching Covington in 1846 and by 1847, the canal reached Lodi in southern Fountain County. Now Fountain County was connected to Lake Erie by canal, and by 1847 traffic had begun to flow through the county via the canal. The canal had reached Terre Haute in 1849 and was completed to Evansville in 1853.

When completed the canal was 458 miles long and was the longest artificial waterway in this country and second only to the Grand Canal in China. The canal was 26 feet wide at the bottom and 40 feet at the top and contained 4 feet of water. The towpath on one side was 10 feet wide and 4 feet above water level. The locks were 60 feet long and 15 feet wide

At Fountain (Portland Arch) was the widest part of the canal between Terre Haute and Lafayette. It was the only place between the two towns that boats could pass. Warehouses were located at Mayville, Attica, Jamestown, Fountain, Covington, Sarah, Vicksburg and Silver Island. At these Fountain County locations merchandise was unloaded from the canal boats. For the next few years, these towns flourished from the traffic between Lake Erie and the Mouth of the Mississippi via the Ohio River.

The coming of the county’s first railroad, the Wabash and Western Railroad line, built through Attica, in 1858, heralded the end of the canal’s usefulness. By 1860, portions south of Terre Haute were closed and the process of decline continued northward. In the end, the canal was too expensive to maintain, and when less costly railroads were completed nearby, its use declined dramatically. Around 1875, the last canal boat passed through Covington, and In 1876, the entire canal in Indiana was sold at auction.

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An article by Bob Quirk, published in the Journal Review.

Erie Canal reaches Fountain County in 1846

The Wabash and Erie Canal reached northern Fountain county during the drought year of 1846. This drought brought about an event which came to be known as the “Attica and Covington War”.

The drought had caused the water level to be low in the canal and water from the Wabash River was also low. When the water from the Wabash River was finally directed to the canal it was found there was barely enough of it to flood the canal to Attica and none for the Covington section of the canal.

The Daniel Webster, a beautiful line boat, arrived in Attica after much difficulty and could go no further. The publisher of the Attica Journal printed an exaggerated report of the boats’ arrival in Attica.

When the lock at Attica was opened and only the barest trickle of water came through, Covington suspected the worst. They thought Attica was closing off the flow of water to keep Covington from using the canal.

Covington Senator Hannegan, who happened to be home from Washington, offered his influence of his position and his ability to debate, if a local committee would accompany him to Attica and get them to open the flood gate. The visit was made but with no success and they returned to Covington.

By daylight the next morning Senator Hannegan and 300 townsmen and farmers armed with clubs stormed up the river to Attica.

The news of their approach was quickly spread and a well armed wagon load of men dispatched. However, the Attican’s arrived too late and in a matter of minutes they were surrounded, captured, disarmed and held prisoner.

The invaders forced their way through Attica and succeeded in opening the floodgates, letting the precious water into the lower section.

Reinforced by additional villagers and crews of the helpless boats, the Attican’s attempted to reclose the flood gates. However, it was too late and in a matter of minutes the thirty canal boats lay topsy turvey, mired in the mud, dumping their precious cargo overboard.

Thus the Covington-Attica canal war was over with victory going to neither town. The fourteen mile section had absorbed all of the ensuing water, not leaving enough to float a raft, much less a canal boat.

However, this was not the end of the canal. It wasn’t long until the drought ended and there was sufficient water and it was reopened.

At first packet boats did not run on a schedule. They started their trips after a profitable number of passengers was assured to be on board. The distance a boat traveled from Toledo to Attica was 267 miles and it took about 2 and half days and cost $3.75. An advertisement in a Ft. Wayne newspaper read: fast sailing “Niagra has large stateroom with 3 meals a day.

As demand increased, boats were designed for freight and passenger separately. The passenger boats were even designed in two classes. One class was for passengers who wanted to arrive at their destination quickly and the other was designed more luxuriously and traveled 5 to 8 miles per hour. They charged one to two cents a mile or more for a ticket.

The internal arrangement had a small covered cabin for the crew. Next was a wash room and drawing room and then the women’s cabin. Next was a large room usually about 45 feet long which served many purposes.

During the day it was a place of general assembly and it was there that 3 meals a day were served. At night it was converted into a floating dormitory. There were about 42 bunks of small shelves of wood, about six feet long and one and half foot wide. The beds were covered with a thin clump of straw and a flat bag of blue canvas. A blanket and pillow completed the bedding supplies.

When it was time to retire a man would take off his hat, neck tie and collar, coat and vest and climb into bed. If he was unusually finicky, he would also take off his shoes and trousers before climbing into bed, but if he did those extras he was considered finicky.

In the morning before breakfast they lined up to wash in a tin basin filled with water from the canal. A comb and brush hung near the place where food was being prepared.

A show boat called, “The Dixie Boys Minstrel Show” operated along the canal. It had a seating capacity of 100.

P.T. Barnum’s Circus came to Attica in 1879. Tom Thumb, three elephants, a band of clowns gave a great show. The boats ran from March 1st until November 1st.

A tin horn announced the arrival and departure of the canal boat at each post.

The canal played an important part in the development of West Central Indiana, However, with the coming of the railroad, the canal era came to an end in the 1870’s.

http://www.journalreview.com/news/article_a31c3bda-1974-11e1-b039-001cc4c002e0.html

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This wedding was held on a canal boat on May 16, 1872, in Attica, Indiana, on the Erie Canal. http://www.in.gov/history/images/canalwedding.gif

Attica canal wedding

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Further Reading:-

A couple of interesting articles, originally published in the Journal Review newspaper, written by Bob Quick are:-
http://www.journalreview.com/news/article_265516fc-01c9-11e1-adad-001cc4c002e0.html
http://www.journalreview.com/news/article_a31c3bda-1974-11e1-b039-001cc4c002e0.html

Some of the history of Attica is detailed on the city’s website http://attica-in.gov/visiting-attica/history-of-attica/

The Attica page on Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attica,_Indiana

Indian Creek Hill Cemetery Veterans Memorial – rural Montgomery County, IN

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Situated at the front of the Indian Creek Hill Cemetery, right next to Indiana State Road 47, this memorial commemorates all veterans. It comprises a large stone, the text of which is given below, a flag pole and flag, and a pair of stone benches.

Memorial text:-

Indian Creek Hill
Cemetery
Veterans Memorial

Dedicated to the gallant men
and women who served their
country during war and peace.

They stood, were counted and
served their country with honor.

We honor the loved ones
who waited for their return

We shall not forget.

Indian Creek Hill Cemetery is located beside Indiana State Road 47, south west of the town of New Market, between Crawfordsville and Waveland, IN.

The cemetery is situated on a small hill. The oldest graves can be found in the center of this well kept cemetery, near the top of the hill.

According to Find A Grave http://findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=cr&CRid=85513 there are currently approximately 1475 interments.

This cemetery is located in Brown Township, and is one of the eight cemeteries in this township.

Brown Township is one of eleven townships in Montgomery County, Indiana. As of the 2010 Census, there were 1719 residents of Brown Township.

Wikipedia Brown Twp. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_Township,_Montgomery_County,_Indiana

Wikipedia Montgomery County page http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montgomery_County,_Indiana

This cemetery on Waymarking.com http://www.waymarking.com/waymarks/WMKY78

This Veteran’s Memorial on Waymarking.com http://www.waymarking.com/waymarks/WMM0HK

Albert R Swaim memorial

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This is an unusual monument, in the shape of a musical organ. It is marking the grave of Albert R. Swaim. This can be found in the Bethany Cemetery, to the east of the town of Marshall, Indiana. Memorial Text: Albert R. Swaim, Born Oct. 28, 1843, Died Jan. 10, 1893.

According to the Find A Grave memorial page http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=5662820 “The 1870 and 1880 census shows him as a music teacher from a large farming family dating back to the 1840’s in Indiana.”

I checked the 1880 census details on Ancestry.com http://ancstry.me/1uifAFf and found the following:

1880 United States Federal Census about Albert Swaim

Name: Albert Swaim

Age: 37

Birth Year: abt 1843

Birthplace: Indiana

Home in 1880: Howard, Parke, Indiana

Race: White

Gender: Male

Relation to Head of House: Brother

Marital Status: Single

Father’s Birthplace: North Carolina

Mother’s Birthplace: Indiana

Occupation: Music Teacher

Household Members:

Name Age

James C. Swaim 24

Nancy B. Swaim 21

Emma E. Swaim 19

Louettie Swaim 16

Thomas Banta 15

Albert Swaim 37

Bethany Cemetery, is a well tended cemetery located on the north side of Indiana State Road 236, approximately one mile east of the town of Marshall, Indiana.

According to Find A Grave http://findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=cr&CRid=84311 there are currently 711 interments.

Marshall is a town in Washington Township, Parke County, Indiana, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 324. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marshall,_In